Signs A Moth Is Dying – There are several signs that a moth is dying. These include: flying erratically, falling to the ground, lying on its side, and remaining still for long periods of time. Additionally, dying moths may have their wings spread out and their legs extended.
- Their bodies may also be bloated and their abdomens may be swollen.
- Finally, the color of a dying moth’s body may change, appearing darker or lighter than usual.
- It’s a large green-winged insect that can spread its wings and reach a height of 4 inches.
- Their consumption of food differs significantly from that of typical caterpillars at the beginning of their journey.
A big moth can fly for up to a week. In addition, they will either die shortly after mating or lay their eggs. Once a luna moth dies, its cocoon appears to resemble a closely related green leaf. You might be able to touch them, but because they are extremely vulnerable, stay away from them.
- 0.1 How do you save luna moths?
- 0.2 Is it safe to hold a luna moth?
- 0.3 Do luna moths turn brown?
- 1 Do luna moths sleep?
- 2 How long does it take a luna moth to fly?
- 3 How rare is a luna moth?
- 4 Why do luna moths shake?
- 5 Can you touch all moths?
- 6 How long does it take for a luna moth to leave a cocoon?
- 7 Do luna moths have hearts?
- 8 What actually kills moths?
- 9 What does vinegar do to moths?
What kills luna moths?
|Luna Moths avoid predators:
As a caterpillar, the bright green coloration allows them to blend in with the surrounding vegetation (plants). The coloration and markings on an adult luna moth’s wings help it avoid predators (animals that eat them) by providing camouflage (blending in with the surrounding environment), allowing it to blend in with tree bark or leaf litter. The eyespots on the wings also play a role in confusing predators by drawing attention to the wings that appear face-like. If a predator attacks the eyespots, the wings may become damaged, but the moth can survive.
|Male Luna Moth Antennae Wikimedia – Judy Gallagher Click image to enlarge it
|Luna Moths communicate using scent:
Female luna moths release a pheromone (chemical scent). Males are able to recognize this scent using their feather-like antennae, These feather-like antennae are so sensitive that males can detect a female from a mile away.
They are active during the night ( nocturnal ).
Luna moth caterpillars raise the front part of their bodies when a threat is nearby which makes them appear less like a caterpillar. They also produce a clicking sound with their mouthparts as a warning that they are about to produce a fluid that is distasteful to a predator (animals that eat them).
Bats are one of the main predators (animals that eat them) of adult luna moths. Bats rely on echolocation (process in which they send out a series of high pitched sounds that bounce back to the bat with information about the location of their prey). Adult luna moths spin the tails of their wings which disrupts a bat’s ability to use echolocation and disorients the bat, allowing the moth a chance to escape.
How do you save luna moths?
Keep the container humid by spritzing the inside with tepid water each morning. You can also place a wet paper towel over the enclosure, if the sides are breathable mesh. This humidity will encourage the moths to emerge from their cocoons. You can distinguish male luna moths by their larger and wider antennae.
How long does a luna moth last?
The luna moth is a light green, giant silk moth that lives only one week in their adult stage.
Is it safe to hold a luna moth?
Is it OK to touch a moth? – It depends on the type of moth but most of them, including Clothes, Carpet and Pantry Moths are harmless. If you are unsure about the species of moth then do not touch them,because, as stated above, irritation is possible.
- Also, the moth may be subjected to some damage.
- When you touch a moth, the delicate scales on its wings fall off.
- This can be problematic.
- Sometimes, children (and even adults) come across large, beautiful moths in gardens.
- In many cases, these intricately patterned moths are great pollinators and won’t cause any trouble in your household.
With bold patterns, moths like the Actias luna (Luna Moth) can be tempting to pick up. However, these moths are very delicate. So, you should avoid touching them.
Do luna moths turn brown?
When Luna moth larvae are ready to pupate, they lose their bright green coloration and instead turn a brownish-orange (shown above). They spin a tough cocoon of silk, often incorporating nearby leaves and twigs.
Do luna moths sleep?
Also, in 1987 the luna moth was placed on a twenty-two cent U.S.A. postage stamp that added to the moths’ popularity. These moths are fairly common. However, due to their nocturnal behavior they are seldom seen during the day because they sleep in secluded places.
Should I move luna moth caterpillar?
Luna Moths are generally easy to raise. You do need to be careful with them during the first couple of weeks. But if you follow these steps, everything should be fine. Luna eggs usually hatch about 10 days after they’ve been laid. While you’re waiting, you should keep them in a Tupperware-type container with a tight-fitting lid. The big secret: neither the eggs nor the caterpillars need airholes. Caterpillars need so little oxygen that they’re just fine in a sealed container. This is especially important at first, because when the caterpillars hatch, they scatter everywhere. They’re tiny, they can escape out of the smallest openings, and they’re super-fast. Don’t put any leaves in the container until the caterpillars appear. The leaves give off gasses that can keep the eggs from hatching. Luna caterpillars can eat a number of different kinds of leaves: sweetgum, pecan, hickory, walnut, sumac, sycamore. But it’s best to pick one kind and stick to it.
- Make sure you aren’t getting leaves from any place near where mosquito spraying has been done (even in a neighboring yard).
- The spray drifts all over and poisons everything.
- Once the caterpillars hatch, add a few leaves to the container.
- Make sure the leaves aren’t too wet.
- These early days are tricky – you don’t want the caterpillars to get too wet or too dry.
If you give them fresh leaves every day, they’ll get all the water they need. It’s good to open the container about once a day, dump out the poop, and add a couple of fresh leaves. Be careful when you put the lid back on. Caterpillars like to hang out at the top of the container. You don’t want to smush them. Don’t worry about taking out the old leaves right away. The caterpillars will move from the old leaves to the new leaves when they’re ready. Once they abandon the old leaves, you can take them out. Be very careful when discarding leaves. The caterpillars are much harder to see than you think – even after they get pretty big. You should keep the caterpillars in the sealed container for about two weeks, until they’re big enough to move to a cage (see Making a Caterpillar Cage and Food and Water ). If your sealed container is big enough, you can just raise the caterpillars in it.
Can you save a moth?
If you find a moth that appears to be dead, there is a chance that you can bring it back to life. There are a few simple steps that you can take to try to revive the moth. First, check to see if the moth is truly dead by looking for signs of life such as movement or a heartbeat.
- If there are no signs of life, gently place the moth in a cup of lukewarm water.
- Let the moth soak for a few minutes before checking for signs of life again.
- If there is still no movement, try gently massaging the moth’s abdomen.
- If the moth begins to move, it is likely that you have successfully revived it! She brought her back to life by blowing on the underside of her wings and drying her with her mouth.
After she dried her, she laid her out on a piece of cloth and watched her fly. When I spoke with Louise, she rejuvenated my affective capacities and gave me a renewed sense of adventure. He believes that the quality of experience is what distinguishes us from our competitors.
How long does it take a luna moth to fly?
Luna moths are one of the silkworm moths. The male Luna moth has feathery antennae. Female Luna moth antennae are slender and fuzzy when compared to male antennae. Photographer: Andrew J. Boone, South Carolina Forestry Commission: Image 1150003. IPMImages.org.
http://www.ipmimages.org/.21 h Oct 2002. The Luna Moth ( Actias luna ), with its incredible size (3-4.5-inch wingspan), sea-foam green to yellow color, and long tails, is one of the most spectacular moths found in North America. Also known as the American Moon Moth, Luna moths are common throughout South Carolina.
The name is derived from Luna, the Roman moon goddess. Luna moths are considered saturniid moths, referring to the use of wing patterns as a defense mechanism against predators. Like most moths, Luna moths are predominately active at night (nocturnal), but sightings during daylight hours do occur.
- Luna moths are most likely to be found in forested areas, commonly deciduous woodlands, but can be attracted to well-lighted areas in the evening.
- Luna moths thrive in eastern North America, as far west as Texas, and a large portion of southeastern Canada.
- Luna moths that live and breed in Canada and the northern bordering states produce one generation (brood) per year (May-July).
Farther south, through the Ohio River Valley, Luna moths produce two generations per year. In the deep south, it is not unusual for Luna moths to have three generations in a single year (March-September). Louisiana has experienced recorded sightings of Luna moths during each month of the year. Adult Luna moths emerge from cocoons hidden in leaf litter on the forest floor. The newly emerged moth will climb to structure where it can hang to expand and dry its wings for flight. LayLa Burgess, ©2019 HGIC, Clemson Extensio When more than one generation is produced per year, there can be visible differences in moth form when the adult emerges. Luna moth caterpillar. Photographer: Ronald F. Billings: Image 3225091. IPMImages.org. http://www.ipmimages.org/.21 Oct 2002. Luna moth caterpillars are lime green with a series of yellow lines and reddish-orange spots running down both sides. The caterpillars are herbivores that feed on the foliage of many types of trees.
- This includes alder, birch, beech, red maple, white oak, wild cherry, hazelnut, hickories, pecan, walnut, persimmon, sweetgum, willows, and smooth sumac.
- In northern regions, the caterpillars prefer white birch, whereas hickories, walnut, persimmon, and sweet gum are favorites in the south.
- The Luna moth caterpillar molts five times over 3-4 weeks before settling on a plant to spin a cocoon.
The cocoon, containing the pupa, is usually spun in a tree over a 2-3-week period. The cocoon later falls to the ground among the leaf litter, where it is conveniently camouflaged and protected from the harsh conditions of winter. In appearance, the cocoon is thin and papery, comprised of silk and leaf pieces.
- The adult Luna moth usually emerges from a cocoon in the morning and then climbs to a secure structure where it can expand its wings to dry throughout the day.
- As with many other silk moths, Luna moths do not feed as adults.
- The food (energy) for the adult stage is stored during the caterpillar stage.
Since Luna moths do not feed as adults, they do not have a fully functional proboscis (the long slender mouthpart) like found on many other moths and butterflies. The proboscis on adult Luna moths has become functionless (vestigial). Luna moths live approximately one week after emerging from the cocoon. Luna moth life cycle: eggs on a host plant, caterpillar (larva), pupa inside the cocoon, and the adult moth. LayLa Burgess, ©2020 HGIC, Clemson Extension Owls, bats, bald-face hornets, parasitic wasps, and fiery searcher ground beetles are a few of the predators that eat Luna moths.
- However, the Luna moth has some great natural defense mechanisms.
- The wing pattern of a Luna moth allows the insect to easily camouflage itself when resting against tree bark or in fallen leaf litter.
- Eyespots are located on all four wings to confuse predators and assist in misguiding an attack to a less vulnerable location of the body.
The Luna moth’s head is well hidden, usually causes a predator to attack one of the sweeping tails, resulting in the moth’s survival. Bats are particularly skilled at hunting Luna moths. The Luna moth uses its long hindwing tails to disrupt echolocation used by the bat during the hunt. Luna moths commonly lose hindwing tails when attacked by a predator. LayLa Burgess, ©2019 HGIC, Clemson Extension Luna moth caterpillars also have defense mechanisms against predators. The caterpillar deters a predator by rearing up the front portion of its body and making a clicking noise with its mandibles.
- Habitat degradation and fragmentation
- Light pollution (potentially disrupts mating behavior)
- Accumulation of pesticides in the environment
When you are out at night (especially around well-lit areas), keep your eyes open and look out for this majestic wonder of nature. You might just get lucky and catch a glimpse. Resources:
- A Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America by Charles V. Covell Jr., (Special Publication/Virginia Museum of Natural History). ISBN 1884549217.
- Caterpillars of Eastern North America by David L. Wagner, Princeton University Press, 2005. ISBN: 0691121435.
- Butterflies and Moths of North America
- Moths of Limberlost-Chapter 6- Moths of the Moon: Actias luna by Gene Stratton-Porter (America author and naturalist)
Originally published 08/20 If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.
Are luna moths aggressive?
Luna Moth Facts – This time of year there is a fun abundance of moths and insects flying around at night, and often hanging on buildings during the day. One such popular moth in our region is the luna moth ( Actias luna ). Luna moths are the charismatic megafauna of the moth world. Adult luna moth (Photo: Wiki Commons) Luna moth spots (Photo: Wiki Commons)
What if I see a luna moth?
The Luna Moth, The Phases of the Moon, and the Spiritual Significance of Signs that Appear in our Lives The Luna Moth may be considered one of the most spiritual and mystical of Spirit Guides. To meet one is a special gift, for when she is in her adult moth stage she only lives for approximately one week. While living through their adult moth life they do not eat, for they have no mouth.
- One might say that their purpose is to reproduce, but I say it is to bring forth the next generation with love.
- They are born, they transform, they love, they die, and then are again reborn.
- Their cycles are short, as are our years while we are here.
- We are reminded to make the most of our moments and to live and love to the fullest.
She is most often seen in the evenings, attracted to the moon and to the light. She speaks of our connection to the Feminine, our inner spirit, and our trust in ourselves. We learn of the importance to find the balance between light and dark, the seen and the unseen.
She is a reminder that when all is said and done, our healing and sense of love are the ultimate journey. The caterpillar and its metamorphosis into the moth, is a spiritual metaphor for our own transformation. Much like the caterpillar’s metamorphosis, we may at times feel like our guts are being ripped apart and turned to mush right before our eyes.
The moth is also the spiritual symbol of the Divine Feminine and her transcendence, from the caterpillar’s perspective it can feel like a death rather than a transformation, and yet the moth gracefully emerges, whole, complete, beautiful, and free. We must set aside everything we once knew and understood about our world and fully embody an entirely new way of being in the world.
The releasing of our past patterning and attachments can very much feel like we are being torn apart from the inside, a painful death of our very comfortable caterpillar body, we were used to crawling on the ground and eating our way through our emotions. Then on the other side of this confusing and gut wrenching loss of self, we emerge with wet wings, no longer do we crawl, our legs have been transformed, and we fly, almost effortlessly, to sip nectar from the blossoms of flowers.The ascension process of our Highest Self.You must surrender completely and trust that some intelligence higher than yourself is guiding you through this process into complete rebirth and freedom.
Luna moths signify new beginnings as they represent a continuing quest for truth and knowledge, the gift of intuition, psychic perception and heightened awareness. Things that are associated with “seeing the light”.
How rare is a luna moth?
A Rare Visit from a Moon Moth When I walked out of my house early this morning, I was thrilled to see something that I had never seen in real life beforea Luna Moth! Luna Moths are not rare, but are rarely seen by humans. This is due to their very brief (7–10 day) adult lives and nocturnal flying time.
- As with all giant silk moths, the adults only have vestigial mouthparts and no digestive system and therefore do not eat in their adult form, instead relying on energy they stored up as caterpillars.
- Found only in North America, Luna Moth caterpillars constantly munch on the leaves of walnut, hickory, sweet gum, and paper birch trees.
After about a month of filling up, the caterpillar builds a cocoon and approx.3 weeks later emerges as a moth. Luna Moths are a favorite snack for bats, so as a defense mechanism they spin the “tails” on the wingtips of their impressive 3-4.5 inches wingspans in circles, which disorients the bats so much that the moths are often able to make a getaway.
It is actually thought that it confuses bat’s finely tuned echolocation detection! In speaking to our wonderful Education Staff, they informed me that the reason it was sitting on the side of the house during the day is likely because it was at the end of its life cycle and had was running out of energy to fly.
It was gone when I checked back a little later so either it made it back to the woods, or was picked up by a hungry bird. I was curious what the Luna Moth represents or symbolize and found that most commonly across cultures, they symbolizes rebirth, change, transformation, resurrection, and power of regeneration.
Why do luna moths shake?
Why Do Lunar Moths Shake? – Image taken by: sciencenews.org Lunar moths shake to release pheromones, which are chemicals used to communicate with other moths. The pheromones are used to attract mates and warn of predators. Unlike most moths, which have no mouths, the launa moths have all of their stored fat.
Can you touch all moths?
Are Moths Dangerous to Humans? – Though moth larvae can give painful stings, moths are generally not dangerous. ©Kevin Collison/Shutterstock.com Are moths dangerous? Moths are generally not dangerous to humans. Apart from the fact that adult moths do not bite, contain venom, have poisonous coatings, or are hazardous when accidentally ingested, moths are mostly harmless to humans.
- However, their larvae counterparts can have some mild effects on human skin due to their spiny hairs.
- Do moths bite when they are caterpillars? Various moth caterpillars do not bite humans, but their prickly hairs that resemble spines can give painful stings.
- Some people might develop allergic reactions from getting in contact with caterpillar hairs.
Symptoms of allergic reactions from hair stings include itching, pain that lasts for several minutes, and itchy welts and red bumps that may resemble hives. These red patches can burn and cause discomfort for a few minutes after the sting. Some species of moth caterpillars can cause lepidopterism and caterpillar dermatitis.
Both are skin conditions that often appear after contact with moth or butterfly larvae. There are reports of developing these skin conditions upon contact with adult moths, but they are infrequent. In the United States, around 50 known moth caterpillar species can sting painfully and cause allergic reactions and skin irritations.
This is relatively small, though, compared to hundreds of thousands of moth species. To clear the confusion, moth caterpillars do not actually “sting.” Moths, in whatever stage they may be, are elusive and non-aggressive. However, when you handle or accidentally come in contact with a moth caterpillar, their spiny hairs can easily lodge in your skin, causing the symptoms mentioned above.
What causes moths to turn dark?
Genetic Changes – Some thought the adults were changing their colors the same way the larvae could match the color of the twigs. Others thought the chemicals in the smoke darkened the moths. Finally it was found that the color was genetic. Moths passed their color to the next generation.
- Eggs from light moths developed into light moths and dark moth eggs turned to dark adults.
- The dark color was caused by a mutation in the DNA of a single moth, and the mutated gene had been passed to all its offspring.
- This explained why the moths were dark, but not why the dark moths were taking over.
Did the dark moths have an advantage in the dark forests? If so, the change in the moths was a result of natural selection.
How long does it take for a luna moth to leave a cocoon?
Luna Moth The round markings on a luna moth’s wings are called eyespots. The round markings on a luna moth’s wings are called eyespots. Photograph by Matt Jeppson, Shutterstock A luna moth perches on a leaf, its bright green wings folded over its body.
Suddenly the insect spreads its wings to reveal their great size. This moth’s wingspan can stretch four and a half inches—that’s about the same length as an iPhone. Found only in North America, the luna moth starts out as a very hungry caterpillar. Newly hatched, this caterpillar constantly munches on the leaves of walnut, hickory, sweet gum, and paper birch trees.
After about a month of filling up on these plants, the caterpillar builds a cocoon. The lives inside for about three weeks, then emerges as a moth. The eye-catching critter is easily recognizable because of its wings. But that’s not the luna moth’s only interesting feature.
Can a luna moth be purple?
Sightings of the green and purple, long-tailed Luna Moth send many North Americans over the moon. This large, pale green Giant Silkmoth can be found in hardwood forests. Luna Moths are unique to North America.
Do luna moths have hearts?
Do Moths Have Blood? (Explained!) | Wildlife Welcome When it comes to insects, moths always stand out due to their unique features and bodily functions and organs. After a moth dies, we never notice blood. Instead of blood, you might often notice an odd-looking fluid or liquid oozing out.
- Some might also even notice the dust.
- Why is that so? This makes us wonder, do moths have blood? If not, then what do they have instead? Like most insects and invertebrates, moths do not have blood in their bodies as humans do.
- Instead, they have hemolymph.
- Hemolymph makes up for the lack of red blood cells in moths.
But, the liquid you notice when a moth dies is not red. Moths have a proper nervous system and an aorta responsible for transmitting hemolymph all across a moth, primarily its brain and wings. This is why the first thing a Luna moth does after hatching is that it hangs down to ensure the hemolymph reaches its wings so it can then fly properly with full feeling in its wings. Do Moths Bleed? Were you to dissect a moth, it won’t bleed as mammals do. Instead, it releases a unique fluid called hemolymph. Moths will not bleed the typical red blood you might be used to, but instead, you will notice a blue-green fluid oozing out.
Are Moths Made of Dust? When a moth dies, it’s as if its body releases dust. But, is this because moths are made of dust? No, moths are not made of dust. The dust you see when they die is actually made up of tiny scales from their wings. Since moths do not have blood due to the absence of red blood cells, nature has blessed moths with a haemoglobin-like compound known as hemolymph.
The primary function of hemolymph in moths is to send nutrition all over their body. A moth’s circulation system takes the hemolymph and pumps it all across their abdomen via pores and then later to other body parts. Like blood, hemolymph flows through the moth’s body in the form of a fluid and contacts all the tissues.
- The hemolymph is made of plasma and, like blood, contains cells known as hemocytes.
- Hemolymph plasma is made up of many other chemicals besides hemocytes.
- The hemolymph also allows for the transportation of oxygen in a moth which is often deemed unnecessary for insects.
- This transportation is completed via the presence of hemocyanin.
Hemolymph is also used to maintain the body temperature of moths and keeps all other organs healthy and functional. Like with blood, the hemolymph travels faster under warm conditions, and the circulation works the opposite under colder conditions. Apart from hemocytes, the hemolymph is composed of many other elements.
- One such element is nucleating agents.
- These agents protect the cells and are found in many other insects such as beetles and flies.
- Certain inorganic elements such as salts and compounds such as chlorines, sodium, proteins, and carbohydrates are also present.
- Amino acids are also found in high levels; however, their concertation may vary depending on the species of moth.
Proteins are an integral part of this fluid, and their classification depends on their function. Some of the most well-known protein compounds such as lipid, chroma, and enzymes are also present. The lipid plays a crucial role in helping the moths to fly.
in the majority of the insects is either pale or has shades of blue or green. In moth, the hemolymph contains hemocyanin. This type of protein is based on copper, and it changes into blue colour. Thus, a moth’s blood or body fluid is bluish and greenish. However, when adequate oxygen isn’t provided to this solution, it changes colour and turns grey.
Yes, moths have hearts. A moth’s heart, also known as the dorsal vessel, is located in the moth’s abdomen and has a tube-like shape. The heart helps with the pumping of hemolymph throughout the moth’s body with the help of vessels. The dorsal vessel is one of the most integral components of a moth’s circulatory system.
It runs from the abdomen and the thorax. It picks up Hemolymph and pushes it towards the head. There are alary muscles present in every dorsal vessel’s chamber. This vessel is placed by the ligaments in the hemocoel. The alary muscles take charge of the Hemolymph’s flow by expanding and contracting movements.
Insects are known to not have blood. Similar is the case in moths, like many insects, where they contain a fluid known as hemolymph. Since this fluid doesn’t have any red blood cells, it isn’t red. Rather, it is bluish-green due to traces of copper present in it.
Do luna moths have hair?
There are a few species of moths that have hairy cocoons, but the most well-known is the Chinese Luna Moth. This moth is native to China and parts of Southeast Asia, and its cocoon is covered in long, silky hairs, The hairs not only protect the pupa from predators, but they also help to keep the cocoon warm and humid, which is essential for the development of the moth.
The trees are still here, two of which are on the largest maple and one of which is on the third. It was pretty obvious from the beginning that those large masses of hair on the inside of my head were moths. What was the hard foamy mass on the outside? This answer, as far as I’m aware, stands. The species is striped lengthwise with yellow and black, with three long, dark tufts at the front and back and four short, thick white tufts at the back.
When the species overwinters at the egg stage, you may well find a cocoon or two among some old, discarded trees. It can make a cocoon from silk and is known as a chrysalis. When a butterfly dies, it leaves a chrysalis, a hard, smooth, and odorless structure that is similar to a silk blanket.
Does a luna moth turn into a butterfly?
The Luna Moth Life Cycle – The luna moth undergoes complete metamorphosis with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. After mating, the female luna moth oviposits on leaves of the host plant. She may produce as many as 200 eggs in total. The eggs hatch in about one week.
- Luna moth caterpillars feed and molt through five instars in 3-4 weeks.
- Once it’s ready to pupate, the caterpillar constructs a simple cocoon of leaves.
- The pupal stage lasts about 3 weeks in warmer climates.
- The luna moth will overwinter in this stage in colder regions, usually hidden under the leaf litter near the host tree.
The luna moth usually emerges from its cocoon in the morning, and is ready to fly by evening. As adults, luna moths live just one week or less.
What kills moths instantly?
Insectrol Powder is a fast and effective insecticidal powder that kills moths.
What actually kills moths?
Does cleaning and vacuuming keep moths out of the wardrobe? – Yes, cleaning and vacuuming are crucial to keeping moths out of your wardrobe and getting rid of them for good. Cleaning with a disinfectant, white vinegar or a formulated Clothes Moth Killer spray will kill moths, eggs and larvae.
What does vinegar do to moths?
How Does Vinegar Naturally Get Rid Of The Cloth Moths? – Everything can benefit from vinegar as it is one of the best natural cleaning agents. And it works when you clean your storage container or closet to deter moths. Vinegar alters the pH of the surfaces it comes in contact with.